General Information

Event name: ES-03-009
Country: SPAIN
Nature of the harmful event:
Water Discoloration , Seafood toxins
Event directly affected:
Toxicity detected: Yes (Approximate range: DSP Positive.)
Associated syndrome: DSP
Unexplained toxicity: No
Species implicated in toxin transmission (transvector):
Report the outcome of a monitoring programme: Yes (MONITORING PROGRAMME OF THE CENTRO DE CONTROL DO MEDIO MARIO)
Event occurred before in this location: Yes (First report of toxicity associated to Gonyaulax polyedra in Galicia although red tides caused for this species had been previously reported in this region.)
Individuals to contact: MANEIRO, Juan , PAZOS, Yolanda , MOROO, ngeles

Location & Date

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Location: Latitude: 43.357333, Longitude: -8.236667
General location information: Ra de Ares-Betanzos., Galicia, NW Spain.
HAB Area code(s): ES-05
Additional location information: 43 21.44' - 43 24.55' N; 08 17.11' - 08 13.54' W. The affected area is dedicated to intensive mussel cultivation in rafts and to a high production of other molluscs in natural banks: clams, cockles, oyster and scallops are the main species exploited.
Bloom event dates (yyyy/mm/dd): Event Date:2003-08-25
Quarantine levels dates (yyyy/mm/dd):
Additional date-related information: Start of detection of L. polyedra cells in 07/07/03 and end 08/09/03. This DSP episode due to L. polyedra was overlapped with a DSP episode due to D. acuminata. Since the DSP data are usually obtained by mouse bioassay, in this case it is not possible to stablish the exact date of detection and finalization of the toxins.


Causative organism known: Yes
Causative Species/Genus: Lingulodinium polyedrum (2,154,824 cells/L)
43 21.44' N; 08 14.20' W (St. L3) 25/08/03
Co-Ocurring Species/Genus: Skeletonema costatum (444,015 cells/L)
Pseudo-nitzschia spp. (203,445 cells/L)
Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima (81,675 cells/L)
Chlorophyll concentration, if known: 19.8 g/L Chl. µg/l
Additional bloom information:
Event-related bibliography:

Environmental Conditions

Weather: Turbidity (NTU): Wind direction:
Stratified water: Yes Oxygen content (nL/L): Wind velocity: 34
Temperature (°C): 16.5 - 20.8 Oxygen saturation %: Current Direction:
Sechhi disk (m): Salinity: 32.0 - 35. Current Velocity: 0
Nutrient information: AMONIUM: 1.13 g/L
NITRATE: Not available
NITRITE: 0.24 g/L
Temperature Range During Event: Max: 24 °C, Min: 14 °C
Salinity Range During Event: Max: 35, Min: 30
Bloom location in the water column:
In situ
Growth Comments
Additional Environmental information: Wind velocity: 34 Km/h.

Toxin Assay Information

Species containing the toxin Toxin type Toxin details Max. concentration Assay type
Raft cultured mussel (Mytilus galloprovincial Okadaic Acid Positive Bioassay-Mouse
Kit used: No Type of kit used:
Additional information: The oficial detection method is by mouse bioassay: Yasumoto et al., Seafood toxins, 1984, 207-214.Some samples are analyzed by HPLC: Lee et al., Agric. Biol. Chem., 1987, 51, 877.
Economic losses: Not evaluated
Management decision: Harvesting was closed in culture areas affected. Wild mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) are used as bioindicator for infaunal molluscs, then when assay are possitive for this specie, infaunal molluscs are precautionary closed in that area, until samples
Additional harmful effect information: Closures due to the presence of toxicity in molluscs is usual in the area and resource exploitation strategies allows to face these closures without great problems.