General Information

Event name: US-06-012
Nature of the harmful event:
High Phyto concentration , Seafood toxins
Event directly affected:
Natural Fish
Toxicity detected: Yes (Approximate range: 0.1 to 0.8 ug/ml Karlotoxin)
Associated syndrome:
Unexplained toxicity:
Species implicated in toxin transmission (transvector): None detected
Report the outcome of a monitoring programme: Yes (Neuse River Modeling and Monitoring Program (ModMon))
Event occurred before in this location: Yes (Blooms have been reported from the region in the past)
Individuals to contact: LITAKER, Wayne , PAERL, Hans

Location & Date

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Location: Latitude: , Longitude:
General location information: Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina, USA
HAB Area code(s): US-11
Additional location information: The bloom covered approximately 20 km of the estuary with the greatest densities occuring over a km region.
Bloom event dates (yyyy/mm/dd):
Quarantine levels dates (yyyy/mm/dd):
Additional date-related information: 10/3/06 to 10/30/06


Causative organism known: Yes
Causative Species/Genus: Karlodinium veneficum (2.0x10^8 cells/L)
Co-Ocurring Species/Genus: Karlodinium veneficum (200,000 cells/L)
Chlorophyll concentration, if known: µg/l
Additional bloom information: Chlorophyll concentration was variable - ranging from approximately 50 to maximum of 800 ug/ml. Pheopolykrikos hartmannii, gyrodinium uncatenum, scrippsiella trochoidea, peridinium aciculaferum, and Katodinium rotundatum were also present at concentratio
Event-related bibliography: Working on paper

Environmental Conditions

Weather: Overcast Turbidity (NTU): Wind direction:
Stratified water: Oxygen content (nL/L): Wind velocity: less than 5 m per s
Temperature (°C): 20.5 Oxygen saturation %: 120% Current Direction:
Sechhi disk (m): Salinity: 9 Current Velocity: 0
Nutrient information: AMONIUM: exceeded 0.5 uM
PHOSPHATE: Not limiting
Temperature Range During Event: Max: °C, Min: °C
Salinity Range During Event:
Bloom location in the water column:
Growth: Advected
In situ
Growth Comments Bloom likely due to both situ growth and hydrodynamic concentration
Additional Environmental information:

Toxin Assay Information

Species containing the toxin Toxin type Toxin details Max. concentration Assay type
Kit used: Type of kit used:
Additional information: for methods see: JR Deeds and AR Place. 2006. Sterol-specific membrane interactions with the toxins from Karlodinium micrum (Dinophyceae): a strategy for self-protection? African Journal of Marine Science 28(2): 421-425
Economic losses: None - Only local noncommercial fish lost
Management decision: The toxin has no known human health effects
Additional harmful effect information: NONE