General Information

Event name: US-09-011
Nature of the harmful event:
Water Discoloration , High Phyto concentration , Seafood toxins
Event directly affected:
Planktonic life , Natural Fish , Other Terrestrial , Shellfish
Toxicity detected: Yes (Approximate range: 43.59-294.08 micrograms STX/100 grams)
Associated syndrome: PSP
Unexplained toxicity: No
Species implicated in toxin transmission (transvector): Pyrodinium bahamense
Report the outcome of a monitoring programme: Yes (Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Biotoxin Contigency Program)
Event occurred before in this location: Yes (Annually since 2002)
Individuals to contact: SCOTT, Paula

Location & Date

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Location: Latitude: 28.803333, Longitude:
General location information: Indian River Lagoon System, East Coast Florida
HAB Area code(s): US-15
Additional location information: 53 miles north to south
Bloom event dates (yyyy/mm/dd): Start: 2009/06/01, End: 2009/11/23
Quarantine levels dates (yyyy/mm/dd): First detection: 2009/06/16, End: 2009/12/08
Additional date-related information:


Causative organism known: Yes
Causative Species/Genus: Pyrodinium bahamense (2,433,300 cells/L)
saxitoxin producer
Co-Ocurring Species/Genus: Pseudo-nitzschia spp. (4,554,600 cells/L)
Rhizosolenia setigera (1,260,000 cells/L)
Chlorophyll concentration, if known: µg/l
Additional bloom information:
Event-related bibliography: Title:Resource guide for public health response to harmful algal blooms in Florida Authors: Abbott, G.M.; Landsberg, J.H.; Reich, A.R.; Steidinger, K.A.; Ketchen, S.; Blackmore, C. Year:2009 Source:Fish and Wildlife Research Institute Technical Report TR-14, viii + 132 p. Title: Detection methods and their limitations: PSP toxins in the southern puffer fish Sphoeroides responsible for human poisoning events in Florida in 2004 Authors: Etheridge, S.; Deeds, J; Hall, S.: White, K.; Abbott, J. Landsberg, J.; Conrad, S.; Bodager, D.; Jackow G Year:2006 Source: African Journal of Marine Science, v. 28 no.2, p. 383-387 Title:Non-traditional vectors for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Authors: Deeds, J.R.; Landsberg, J.H.; Etheridge, S.M.; Pitcher, G.C.; Longan, S.W Year:2008 Source: Marine Drugs, v.6, p.308-348 Title:Concentrations of saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin in three species of puffers from the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, the location for multiple cases of saxitoxin puffer poisoning from 2002 to 2004 Authors:Deeds, J.R., White, K.D.; Etheridge, S.M.; Landsberg, J.H. Year:208 Source:Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, v.137, p. 1317-1326 Title: Saxitoxin puffer fish poisoning in the United States, with the first report of Pyrodinium bahamense as the putative toxin source Authors: Landsberg, J.H.; Hall, S.; Johannessen, J.N.; White, K.D.; Conrad, S.M.; Abbott, J.P.; Flewelling, L.J.; Richardson, R.W.; Jester, E.L.E.; Etheridge, S.M.; Deeds, J.R.; Van Dolah, F.M.; Leighfield, T.A.; Zou, Y.; Beaudry, C.G.; Benner, R.A. Year:2006 Source: Environmental Health Perspectives, v.114 no.10 p.1502-1507

Environmental Conditions

Weather: Turbidity (NTU): Wind direction:
Stratified water: Yes Oxygen content (nL/L): 2.1-11.2 Wind velocity:
Temperature (°C): 19.1-34.2 Oxygen saturation %: Current Direction:
Sechhi disk (m): Salinity: 19.5-32.0 Current Velocity:
Nutrient information:
Temperature Range During Event: Max: 34.2 °C, Min: 19.1 °C
Salinity Range During Event: Max: 32, Min: 19.5
Bloom location in the water column: Whole column
In situ
Growth Comments
Additional Environmental information:

Toxin Assay Information

Species containing the toxin Toxin type Toxin details Max. concentration Assay type
Hard clams Saxitoxins 294.08 mg STX/100 g Bioassay-Mouse
Pufferfish Saxitoxins Bioassay-Mouse
Kit used: Yes Type of kit used: Jellett Rapid Test for PSP
Additional information: Positive mouse bioassays. Shellfish also tested by HPLC above the regulatory limit with the highest at 246.02 micrograms STX eg./100 grams
Economic losses: Closure of 4 shellfish harvesting zones for 4 months. Economic loss of closures not calculated at this point.
Management decision: Shellfish harvesting closures when tested above the regulatory limit. Areas remain closed until two consecutive mouse bioassays, collected at least 7 days apart return with results below 80 micrograms sTX/100 grams shellfish.
Additional harmful effect information: Harvesting of pufferfish banned in this area since 2002 (Florida Department of Health)