General Information

Event name: ZAF-74-001
Nature of the harmful event:
Water Discoloration
Event directly affected:
Toxicity detected: Yes
Associated syndrome: PSP
Unexplained toxicity: No
Species implicated in toxin transmission (transvector): Choromytilus meridionalis and Donax serra
Report the outcome of a monitoring programme: No
Event occurred before in this location: Yes (1966 atributed to A. catenella)
Individuals to contact: MANSFIELD, Lisa

Location & Date

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Location: Latitude: -32.314167, Longitude: 18.335556
General location information: Elands Bay, West Coast
HAB Area code(s): ZAF-01
Additional location information:
Bloom event dates (yyyy/mm/dd): Start: 1974-09-01, End: 1974-09-30
Quarantine levels dates (yyyy/mm/dd):
Additional date-related information:


Causative organism known: Yes
Causative Species/Genus: Protoceratium reticulatum (2 x 10e6 cells/L)
reported as Gonyaulax grindleyi
Co-Ocurring Species/Genus: Prorocentrum micans ( cells/L)
Chlorophyll concentration, if known: µg/l
Additional bloom information:
Event-related bibliography: HORSTMAN, D.A. 1981 Reported red-water outbreaks and their effects on fauna of the west and south coasts of South Africa, 1959-1980. Fish. Bull. S. Afr. 15: 71-88.

Environmental Conditions

Weather: Turbidity (NTU): Wind direction:
Stratified water: Oxygen content (nL/L): Wind velocity:
Temperature (°C): Oxygen saturation %: Current Direction:
Sechhi disk (m): Salinity: Current Velocity:
Nutrient information:
Temperature Range During Event: Max: °C, Min: °C
Salinity Range During Event:
Bloom location in the water column:
Growth Comments
Additional Environmental information:

Toxin Assay Information

Species containing the toxin Toxin type Toxin details Max. concentration Assay type
Protoceratium reticulatum Bioassay-Mouse
Kit used: Type of kit used:
Additional information: No toxin data recorded in the literature.
Economic losses: Huge quantities of white and black mussels died and were washed ashore.
Management decision:
Additional harmful effect information: The mussels on the west coast were recorded as remaining toxic for 6 months.
Created at 05:19 on 27 Sep 2017
Updated at 09:15 on 23 Apr 2018