General Information

Event name: ES-90-004
Country: SPAIN
Nature of the harmful event:
Seafood toxins
Event directly affected:
Toxicity detected: Yes (Approximate range: > 80 µg STXeq / 100 g.)
Associated syndrome: PSP
Unexplained toxicity: No
Species implicated in toxin transmission (transvector):
Report the outcome of a monitoring programme: Yes
Event occurred before in this location: Yes (In October and November 1976 was the first PSP outbreak detected in this area. It was probably caused by a G. catenatum bloom. This species has appeared in the Rias Bajas Gallegas in association with PSP episodes each year since 1985.)
Individuals to contact: BRAVO, Isabel , REGUERA, Beatriz

Location & Date

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Location: Latitude: , Longitude:
General location information: Rķas Bajas Gallegas., Galicia, NW Spain.
HAB Area code(s): ES-07 ES-08
Additional location information: Vigo, Pontevedra, Arosa and Muros.
Bloom event dates (yyyy/mm/dd): Event Date:1990-10-02
Quarantine levels dates (yyyy/mm/dd):
Additional date-related information: July - October.


Causative organism known: Yes
Causative Species/Genus: Gymnodinium catenatum (118,000 cells/L)
3 July. Until 29 October, in Ria de Vigo.
Co-Ocurring Species/Genus:
Chlorophyll concentration, if known: µg/l
Additional bloom information: Sampling was carried out with a hose-sampler (recommended by I.C.E.S., WG of 1986) at 0-5, 5-10 and 10-15 m.
Event-related bibliography:

Environmental Conditions

Weather: Turbidity (NTU): Wind direction:
Stratified water: No Oxygen content (nL/L): Wind velocity:
Temperature (°C): Oxygen saturation %: Current Direction:
Sechhi disk (m): Salinity: 35 Current Velocity: 0
Nutrient information:
Temperature Range During Event: Max: 18 °C, Min: 15 °C
Salinity Range During Event:
Bloom location in the water column:
Growth: Advected
Growth Comments The highest concentrations were found on the outermost stations and in the more southener Rias (Vigo and Pontevedra). It is suggested that warm offshore surface water was transported into the ria as the summer upwelling ceased pushing G. catenatum populat
Additional Environmental information: In July and in August there was a strong thermal gradient between 0 and 15 m. Stratification was maximal at the end of July. The water column was well mixed from the begining of October onwards.

Toxin Assay Information

Species containing the toxin Toxin type Toxin details Max. concentration Assay type
Mussels cultivated Saxitoxins STX eq > 80 Bioassay-Mouse
Kit used: No Type of kit used:
Additional information:
Economic losses:
Management decision: Collection and sale of bivalves was forbidden.
Additional harmful effect information: PSP values measured in cultivated mussels (rafts) and other bivalves frojm natural banks(clams, cockles, etc) were more than 80 µg equiv STX/100 g meat from 29 September to 4 October. Mouse bioassay method, AOAC.