General Information

Event name: ZAF-97-003
Nature of the harmful event:
Seafood toxins
Event directly affected:
Toxicity detected: Yes (Approximate range: >80g/ 100g mussel tissue)
Associated syndrome: PSP
Unexplained toxicity: No
Species implicated in toxin transmission (transvector): White mussels, Donax serra and black mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis
Report the outcome of a monitoring programme: No
Event occurred before in this location: Yes (1958)
Individuals to contact: MANSFIELD, Lisa

Location & Date

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Location: Latitude: -33.062500, Longitude: 17.934722
General location information: West Coast, West Coast
HAB Area code(s): ZAF-01
Additional location information: General West Coast area
Bloom event dates (yyyy/mm/dd): Event Date:1997-01-01
Start: 1997-01-01, End: 1997-08-31
Quarantine levels dates (yyyy/mm/dd): First detection: 1997-03-01, End: 1997-08-01
Additional date-related information:


Causative organism known: Yes
Causative Species/Genus: Alexandrium catenella ( cells/L)
cells/L not given in this record
Co-Ocurring Species/Genus: Ceratium furca (20000000 cells/L)
by April 1997 - dominant species
Dinophysis acuminata ( cells/L)
cells/L not given in this record
Chlorophyll concentration, if known: µg/l
Additional bloom information: Highest concentration of 2600g toxin/ 100g mussel tissue recorded during May.
Event-related bibliography: PITCHER, G.C. and A. C. COCKROFT 1998 - Low oxygen, rock lobster strandings and PSP. In Harmful Algae News, ed, T. Wyatt, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, 17: 1-3

Environmental Conditions

Weather: Turbidity (NTU): Wind direction:
Stratified water: Oxygen content (nL/L): Wind velocity:
Temperature (°C): Oxygen saturation %: Current Direction:
Sechhi disk (m): Salinity: Current Velocity:
Nutrient information:
Temperature Range During Event: Max: °C, Min: °C
Salinity Range During Event:
Bloom location in the water column:
Growth Comments
Additional Environmental information:

Toxin Assay Information

Species containing the toxin Toxin type Toxin details Max. concentration Assay type
Kit used: Type of kit used:
Additional information: Shellfish toxicity but no direct reference to the tests carried out.
Economic losses: 2000 tons of of west coast rock lobster due to the low oxygen event from the Ceratium furca bloom
Management decision: From March 1997 to August 1997 a ban was placed on the collection of wild shellfish
Additional harmful effect information: On 30 April 1997 a woman died after eating white mussels (Donax serra), 9 May another woman died after eating black mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), on 13 May four Taiwanese sailors were admitted to hospital after eating both raw and cooked mussels.
Created at 02:36 on 11 Jan 2019
Updated at 08:42 on 14 Jan 2019