General Information

Event name: ZAF-57-001
Nature of the harmful event:
Seafood toxins
Event directly affected:
Other Terrestrial , Humans
Toxicity detected: Yes (Approximate range: 4,000 m.u. per 100 g. of mussel)
Associated syndrome: PSP
Unexplained toxicity: No
Species implicated in toxin transmission (transvector): Mytilus meridionalis
Report the outcome of a monitoring programme: No
Event occurred before in this location: No
Individuals to contact: MANSFIELD, Lisa , SCHWEIBOLD Laura

Location & Date

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Location: Latitude: -29.588889, Longitude: 31.176667
General location information: Tongaat, East Coast
HAB Area code(s): ZAF-03
Additional location information: Tongaat is the village where the victims lived, the exact location of the fishing is unknown
Bloom event dates (yyyy/mm/dd): Event Date:1957-12-09
Quarantine levels dates (yyyy/mm/dd):
Additional date-related information:


Causative organism known: Yes
Causative Species/Genus: Alexandrium catenella ( cells/L)
uncertain identification, was ascribed to G. catenella
Co-Ocurring Species/Genus:
Chlorophyll concentration, if known: µg/l
Additional bloom information: uncertain identification, was ascribed to G. catenella
Event-related bibliography: MANN, N. M. and W. S. WINSHIP 1958 - Paralytic mussel poisoning in Natal. S. Afr. med. J. 32: 548-549.

Environmental Conditions

Weather: Turbidity (NTU): Wind direction:
Stratified water: Oxygen content (nL/L): Wind velocity:
Temperature (°C): Oxygen saturation %: Current Direction:
Sechhi disk (m): Salinity: Current Velocity:
Nutrient information:
Temperature Range During Event: Max: °C, Min: °C
Salinity Range During Event:
Bloom location in the water column:
Growth Comments
Additional Environmental information:

Toxin Assay Information

Species containing the toxin Toxin type Toxin details Max. concentration Assay type
Alexandrium catenella Saxitoxins 4000 m.u. per 100 g Bioassay-Other
Kit used: No Type of kit used:
Additional information: Two extracts were made from the tested mussels. One was made from the digestive glands and was brown in colour, the other, from the gills, was cream coloured. These extracts were tested by injecting them into the dorsal lymph spaces of 20-g. toads (Bufo regularis).
Economic losses:
Management decision:
Additional harmful effect information: 6 victims involved (5 humans and a cat), among them a 5 y.o. girl died because of respiratory paralysis.
Created at 04:32 on 7 Nov 2019
Updated at 08:41 on 8 Nov 2019