General Information

Event name: CL-16-004
Country: CHILE
Nature of the harmful event:
Water Discoloration , High Phyto concentration , Seafood toxins
Event directly affected:
Toxicity detected: Yes (Approximate range: 5x10^3 µg STX eq/kg)
Associated syndrome: PSP
Unexplained toxicity: No
Species implicated in toxin transmission (transvector):
Report the outcome of a monitoring programme: No
Event occurred before in this location: Yes (since 1908)
Individuals to contact: SCHWEIBOLD Laura

Location & Date

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Location: Latitude: -41.775833, Longitude: -73.673889
General location information: Chacao channel, Aysen and Los Lagos
HAB Area code(s): CL-12
Additional location information: Sanitary bans from Valdivia to Corcovado Gulf, including all Chiloe Island coasts.
Bloom event dates (yyyy/mm/dd): Event Date:2016-04-24
Start: 2016-04-15, End: 2016-05-01
Quarantine levels dates (yyyy/mm/dd):
Additional date-related information: closures for very long periods (years)


Causative organism known: Yes
Causative Species/Genus: Alexandrium catenella (2.5x10^5 cells/L)
Co-Ocurring Species/Genus:
Chlorophyll concentration, if known: µg/l
Additional bloom information:
Event-related bibliography: Hernández, C., Díaz, P.A., Molinet, C. & Seguel, M. (2016): Exceptional climate anomalies and northwards expansion of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning outbreaks in Southern Chile. − Harmful Algae News 54: 1–2.

Environmental Conditions

Weather: Turbidity (NTU): Wind direction:
Stratified water: Oxygen content (nL/L): Wind velocity:
Temperature (°C): Oxygen saturation %: Current Direction:
Sechhi disk (m): Salinity: Current Velocity:
Nutrient information:
Temperature Range During Event: Max: °C, Min: °C
Salinity Range During Event:
Bloom location in the water column:
Growth Comments
Additional Environmental information: This exceptional A. catenella bloom was associated with extreme hydroclimatic anomalies

Toxin Assay Information

Species containing the toxin Toxin type Toxin details Max. concentration Assay type
Alexandrium catenella Saxitoxins STX eq 5000 µg STX eq/kg LC-FD
Kit used: Type of kit used:
Additional information: assay made on Pacific clams (Gari solida)
Economic losses: estimated to US$2M this year
Management decision: shellfish harvesting closures over extensive geographic areas (up to 500 km) and for very long periods (1–3 years).
Additional harmful effect information: 1700 people were left unemployed because of HAB events, due to the inactivity of the processing plants and the ban on the harvesting of mussels. 12 people intoxicated.
Created at 12:10 on 22 Nov 2019