General Information

Event name: US-98-044
Nature of the harmful event:
Seafood toxins , Mass mortalities
Event directly affected:
Natural Fish , Shellfish , Humans
Toxicity detected: Yes
Associated syndrome: NSP , Aerosolized toxins effects
Unexplained toxicity: No
Species implicated in toxin transmission (transvector):
Report the outcome of a monitoring programme: Yes
Event occurred before in this location: Yes (Yes (Written accounts of fish kills date back to 1844 and ancedotal information back to the 1500s. In the las 25 years, G. breve blooms known as))
Individuals to contact: STEIDINGER, Karen A.

Location & Date

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Location: Latitude: , Longitude:
General location information: Manatee to Collier counties and Palm Beach Co, Florida. HAB Area code(s): US-16,
HAB Area code(s): US-15
Additional location information: Manatee to Collier counties, Florida west coast, Area 16. Evidently transported to Palm Beach County (Area 15) by the Florida Current in January 1998 when respiratory irritation was verified by the presence of G. breve inshore.
Bloom event dates (yyyy/mm/dd):
Quarantine levels dates (yyyy/mm/dd):
Additional date-related information: Two events, mid-January to early March and t


Causative organism known: No
Causative Species/Genus: Gymnodinium breve (68,300,000 cells/L cells/L)
January/February in offshore waters
Co-Ocurring Species/Genus:
Chlorophyll concentration, if known: µg/l
Additional bloom information:
Event-related bibliography: Foley, A., Stacy, B. A., Schueller, P., Flewelling, L. J., Schroeder, B., Minch, K., Fauquier, D. A., Foote, J. J., Manire, C., Atwood, K. E., Granholm, A. A., Landsberg, J. H., 2019. Assessing Karenia brevis red tide as a mortality factor of sea turtles in Florida. Dis. Aquat. Org. 132, 109124.

Environmental Conditions

Weather: Turbidity (NTU): Wind direction:
Stratified water: Oxygen content (nL/L): Wind velocity:
Temperature (°C): Oxygen saturation %: Current Direction:
Sechhi disk (m): Salinity: Current Velocity:
Nutrient information:
Temperature Range During Event: Max: °C, Min: °C
Salinity Range During Event:
Bloom location in the water column:
Growth Comments
Additional Environmental information:

Toxin Assay Information

Species containing the toxin Toxin type Toxin details Max. concentration Assay type
Kit used: Type of kit used:
Additional information:
Economic losses:
Management decision:
Additional harmful effect information: Offshore and inshore fish kills. Minor human respiratory irritation inshore. Toxic shellfish, no human illnesses.
Created at 02:08 on 10 Mar 2020
Updated at 06:43 on 28 Jul 2020