General Information

Event name: US-93-008
Nature of the harmful event:
Mass mortalities
Event directly affected:
Toxicity detected: No
Associated syndrome: OTHER
Unexplained toxicity: No
Species implicated in toxin transmission (transvector):
Report the outcome of a monitoring programme: Yes
Event occurred before in this location: Yes (Similar occurrences in previous years invorlving fish and shellfish.)
Individuals to contact: TESTER, Patricia

Location & Date

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Location: Latitude: , Longitude:
General location information: , North Carolina.
HAB Area code(s): US-11
Additional location information:
Bloom event dates (yyyy/mm/dd):
Quarantine levels dates (yyyy/mm/dd):
Additional date-related information: June-July.


Causative organism known: Yes
Causative Species/Genus: Pfiesteria piscicida ( cells/L)
Previously reported as Pfiesteria, however, Karlodinium spp. is now believed to be the causative organism
Co-Ocurring Species/Genus:
Chlorophyll concentration, if known: µg/l
Additional bloom information: Planozygotes (50-100 Ám) similar to the ones described by Burkholder (1994) were observed. In July, at the Duke University Marine Laboratory in Beaufort, NC, sea urchins held overnight in seawater tanks died suddenly; dinospores (2/ml) and cysts of Pfies
Event-related bibliography:

Environmental Conditions

Weather: Turbidity (NTU): Wind direction:
Stratified water: No Oxygen content (nL/L): Wind velocity:
Temperature (°C): Oxygen saturation %: Current Direction:
Sechhi disk (m): Salinity: Current Velocity: 0
Nutrient information:
Temperature Range During Event: Max: °C, Min: °C
Salinity Range During Event:
Bloom location in the water column:
In situ
Growth Comments Porbably
Additional Environmental information: Estuarine and near coastal

Toxin Assay Information

Species containing the toxin Toxin type Toxin details Max. concentration Assay type
Kit used: Type of kit used:
Additional information:
Economic losses: In June, the Bear Creek Clam Hatchery lost $ 7,500 worth of Mercenaria mercenaria seed clams maintained in static culture with water from Bogue Sound.
Management decision: None
Additional harmful effect information: These are incidents that I know of. Dr. JoAnn Burkholder (NC State Unversity) is the main contact for NC State workers when they see fish kills.
Updated at 05:54 on 3 Apr 2019