General Information

Event name: US-99-003
Nature of the harmful event:
Water Discoloration , High Phyto concentration , Seafood toxins , Mass mortalities
Event directly affected:
Natural Fish , Shellfish , Aquatic Mammals , Humans
Toxicity detected: Yes (Approximate range: 33.4 MU brevetoxin)
Associated syndrome: NSP , Aerosolized toxins effects
Unexplained toxicity: No
Species implicated in toxin transmission (transvector):
Report the outcome of a monitoring programme: Yes
Event occurred before in this location: Yes (Almost annual between Pinellas and Lee Counties. See ICES report for 1998, almost annual.)
Individuals to contact: STEIDINGER, Karen A.

Location & Date

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Location: Latitude: 30.137778, Longitude: -85.751667
General location information: Panama City, Sarasota, Pine Island Sound, Gulf of Mexico, Florida.
HAB Area code(s): US-16
Additional location information: Panama City: 30.1379 N - 85.7517 W. 29.6657 N - 85.2192 W to 30.3306 N - 87.1392 W. Pine Island Sound: Precise Location: 26.6473 N - 82.2200 W. From 27.5337 N 82.7455 W to 26.3057N 82.2322 W. Sarasota: 27.0127N - 82.5070W From 27.6133 N 82.390 W to 25
Bloom event dates (yyyy/mm/dd): Start: 1999-01-08, End: 2000-01-12
Quarantine levels dates (yyyy/mm/dd):
Additional date-related information: Began 1998-11-11


Causative organism known: Yes
Causative Species/Genus: Gymnodinium breve (15,500,000 cells/L)
There were 3 simultaneous G. Breve red tides in FL waters in fall 1999 (NE, NW + SW Florida)
Co-Ocurring Species/Genus:
Chlorophyll concentration, if known: Off Panama City (near shore): 7.11 g chl a/L µg/l
Additional bloom information: Panama City: 15,500,000 Cells/L Pine Island Sound: 3,630,000 cells/L Sarasota: 5,350,000 cells/L
Event-related bibliography: Foley, A., Stacy, B. A., Schueller, P., Flewelling, L. J., Schroeder, B., Minch, K., Fauquier, D. A., Foote, J. J., Manire, C., Atwood, K. E., Granholm, A. A., Landsberg, J. H., 2019. Assessing Karenia brevis red tide as a mortality factor of sea turtles in Florida. Dis. Aquat. Org. 132, 109124.

Environmental Conditions

Weather: Turbidity (NTU): Wind direction:
Stratified water: No Oxygen content (nL/L): Wind velocity:
Temperature (°C): Oxygen saturation %: Current Direction:
Sechhi disk (m): Salinity: 34 Current Velocity: 0
Nutrient information:
Temperature Range During Event: Max: 37 °C, Min: 13 °C
Salinity Range During Event: Max: 37, Min: 17
Bloom location in the water column: Whole column
Growth Comments Unknown for coastal blooms, advected from shelf into estuaries
Additional Environmental information: Throughout water column inshore

Toxin Assay Information

Species containing the toxin Toxin type Toxin details Max. concentration Assay type
Oysters and Clams Brevetoxins 23.5-33.4 Bioassay-Mouse
Oysters Brevetoxins 31.2 MU/100g Bioassay-Mouse
Kit used: Type of kit used:
Additional information:
Economic losses: Closed shellfish beds - no estimate of loss.
Management decision: Presence of G. Breve above background closed shellfish beds in 3 counties. Closed shellfish harvesting areas in Charlotte and Lee Counties.
Additional harmful effect information: Toxicity detected in oysters and in dolphins. Associated syndrome: Respiratory irritation and fish kills, possible manatee deaths.
Updated at 07:02 on 29 Jul 2020