General Information

Event name: US-99-004
Nature of the harmful event:
Water Discoloration , High Phyto concentration , Seafood toxins , Mass mortalities
Event directly affected:
Shellfish , Humans
Toxicity detected: Yes (Approximate range: 33.4 MU brevetoxin)
Associated syndrome: NSP , Aerosolized toxins effects
Unexplained toxicity: No
Species implicated in toxin transmission (transvector):
Report the outcome of a monitoring programme: Yes
Event occurred before in this location: Yes (Almost annual between Pinellas and Lee Counties. See ICES report for 1998, almost annual.)
Individuals to contact: STEIDINGER, Karen A.

Location & Date

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Location: Latitude: 26.646667, Longitude: -82.219167
General location information: Pine Island Sound., Gulf of Mexico, Florida.
HAB Area code(s): US-16
Additional location information: Precise Location: 26.6473 N - 82.2200 W. From 27.5337 N 82.7455 W to 26.3057N 82.2322 W.
Bloom event dates (yyyy/mm/dd): Event Date:1999-01-08
End: 1999-05-11
Quarantine levels dates (yyyy/mm/dd):
Additional date-related information: Event began 1998-11-11


Causative organism known: Yes
Causative Species/Genus: Gymnodinium breve (3,630,000 cells/L)
Co-Ocurring Species/Genus:
Chlorophyll concentration, if known: µg/l
Additional bloom information:
Event-related bibliography: Foley, A., Stacy, B. A., Schueller, P., Flewelling, L. J., Schroeder, B., Minch, K., Fauquier, D. A., Foote, J. J., Manire, C., Atwood, K. E., Granholm, A. A., Landsberg, J. H., 2019. Assessing Karenia brevis red tide as a mortality factor of sea turtles in Florida. Dis. Aquat. Org. 132, 109124.

Environmental Conditions

Weather: Turbidity (NTU): Wind direction:
Stratified water: No Oxygen content (nL/L): Wind velocity:
Temperature (°C): 16.1 Oxygen saturation %: Current Direction:
Sechhi disk (m): Salinity: 32.1 Current Velocity: 0
Nutrient information:
Temperature Range During Event: Max: 26 °C, Min: 18 °C
Salinity Range During Event: Max: 36, Min: 22
Bloom location in the water column: Whole column
Growth: Advected
Growth Comments Advected from shelf to estuaries.
Additional Environmental information: Throughout water column inshore.

Toxin Assay Information

Species containing the toxin Toxin type Toxin details Max. concentration Assay type
Oysters & clams Brevetoxins 23.5 - 33.4 MU/100g Bioassay-Mouse
Kit used: Type of kit used:
Additional information:
Economic losses: Not known, closed shellfish beds.
Management decision: Closed shellfish harvesting areas in Charlotte and Lee Counties.
Additional harmful effect information: Associated syndrom: Respiratory irritation and fish kills.
Updated at 08:28 on 29 Jul 2020