General Information

Event name: US-02-011
Nature of the harmful event:
Water Discoloration , High Phyto concentration , Mass mortalities , Other ( human respiratory irritation)
Event directly affected:
Natural Fish , Aquatic Mammals , Humans
Toxicity detected: Yes (Approximate range: 23.1-113.6 MU)
Associated syndrome: NSP , Aerosolized toxins effects
Unexplained toxicity: No
Species implicated in toxin transmission (transvector): Manatee intoxications probably thru epifauna on leaves of seagrasses
Report the outcome of a monitoring programme: Yes (State of Florida Redtide Monitoring Program)
Event occurred before in this location: Yes (almost annual between Pinellas and Lee Counties.)
Individuals to contact: STEIDINGER, Karen A.

Location & Date

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Location: Latitude: 24.691667, Longitude: -80.232778
General location information: Southwest Florida., Florida, Gulf of Mexico.
HAB Area code(s): US-16
Additional location information: 24.6917 to 28.3753 N; 80.23280 to 83.42640 W.
Bloom event dates (yyyy/mm/dd): Start: 2002-01-04, End: 2003-02-13
Quarantine levels dates (yyyy/mm/dd):
Additional date-related information: Started in 2001 and continued into 2003 in this area with several Karenia species co-occuring.


Causative organism known: Yes
Causative Species/Genus: Karenia brevis (2,920,000 cells/L)
Co-Ocurring Species/Genus: Karenia mikimotoi (40,000 cells/L)
Chlorophyll concentration, if known: 5.9 - 22.8 g/L Chl. µg/l
Additional bloom information:
Event-related bibliography: Foley, A., Stacy, B. A., Schueller, P., Flewelling, L. J., Schroeder, B., Minch, K., Fauquier, D. A., Foote, J. J., Manire, C., Atwood, K. E., Granholm, A. A., Landsberg, J. H., 2019. Assessing Karenia brevis red tide as a mortality factor of sea turtles in Florida. Dis. Aquat. Org. 132, 109124.

Environmental Conditions

Weather: Turbidity (NTU): Wind direction:
Stratified water: No Oxygen content (nL/L): Wind velocity:
Temperature (°C): Oxygen saturation %: Current Direction:
Sechhi disk (m): Salinity: Current Velocity: 0
Nutrient information:
Temperature Range During Event: Max: 35 °C, Min: 12 °C
Salinity Range During Event: Max: 39, Min: 22
Bloom location in the water column:
Growth: Advected
Growth Comments
Additional Environmental information:

Toxin Assay Information

Species containing the toxin Toxin type Toxin details Max. concentration Assay type
Karenia brevis Brevetoxins 113.6 MU Bioassay-Mouse
Kit used: Type of kit used:
Additional information:
Economic losses: closed shellfish beds-no extimate of loss
Management decision: followed Biotoxin Control Plen-closed shellfish harvesting areas affected; opened when <20 MU
Additional harmful effect information:
Updated at 07:08 on 29 Jul 2020