General Information

Event name: US-02-012
Nature of the harmful event:
Seafood toxins
Event directly affected:
Natural Fish , Humans
Toxicity detected: Yes (Approximate range: In multiple tissues of fish, range below regulatory limit to maximum of more than 6,000 g STXeq/100)
Associated syndrome: OTHER
Unexplained toxicity: Yes (STX confirmed for the first time in Florida in puffer fish.)
Species implicated in toxin transmission (transvector): Southern puffer fish (Sphoeroides nephelus).
Report the outcome of a monitoring programme: No
Event occurred before in this location: No
Individuals to contact: LANDSBERG, Jan

Location & Date

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Location: Latitude: 26.970000, Longitude: -80.080000
General location information: Indian River Lagoon., Florida, SE USA.
HAB Area code(s): US-15
Additional location information: 26.97 - 28.80 N 80.08 - 80.88 W.
Bloom event dates (yyyy/mm/dd):
Quarantine levels dates (yyyy/mm/dd):
Additional date-related information: Quarentine Initial date: April 2002. Final date: ongoing as of September 2002. Puffer fish still remain toxic after PFP incidents starting from January 2002.


Causative organism known: Yes
Causative Species/Genus: Pyrodinium bahamense (14,000,000 cells/L)
Co-Ocurring Species/Genus:
Chlorophyll concentration, if known: µg/l
Additional bloom information:
Event-related bibliography:

Environmental Conditions

Weather: Turbidity (NTU): Wind direction:
Stratified water: No Oxygen content (nL/L): Wind velocity:
Temperature (°C): Oxygen saturation %: Current Direction:
Sechhi disk (m): Salinity: Current Velocity: 0
Nutrient information:
Temperature Range During Event: Max: °C, Min: °C
Salinity Range During Event:
Bloom location in the water column:
Growth Comments
Additional Environmental information:

Toxin Assay Information

Species containing the toxin Toxin type Toxin details Max. concentration Assay type
Puffer fish Saxitoxins STX eq 5,264 Bioassay-Mouse
Kit used: No Type of kit used:
Additional information: Kit immunoassay type: ELISA: Ridascreen (R-Biofarm). Confirmed by FDA in mouse bioassay, HPLC and LC-MS: STX, B1, dcSTX. Analysis are made in Pupper fish fillets.
Economic losses:
Management decision: Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission imposed 2 consecutive 90-day bans followed by a 1-year ban on puffer fishing in the Indian River Lagoon. Shellfish and HAB monitoring implemented.
Additional harmful effect information: Potential risk for PSP - below regulatory STX concentrations confirmed in molluscs. Potential for STX transfer in the food chain and for PSP in shellfish.