General Information

Event name: ES-10-003
Country: SPAIN
Nature of the harmful event:
Water Discoloration , High Phyto concentration
Event directly affected:
Planktonic life
Toxicity detected: No
Associated syndrome: PSP
Unexplained toxicity:
Species implicated in toxin transmission (transvector):
Report the outcome of a monitoring programme: Yes (Catalan Monitoring Programme)
Event occurred before in this location: Yes (Since 1996)
Individuals to contact: VILA, Magda , SAMPEDRO, Nagore , ARIN, Laura

Location & Date

[View larger map]
Location: Latitude: 41.578889, Longitude: 2.555000
General location information: Arenys de Mar harbour, Catalonia
HAB Area code(s): ES-22
Additional location information: Other harbours were affected by A. minutum blooms. Barcelona harbour in May (4,6•105 cells/L, on 15/05/10) and Cambrils (2,3•106 cells/L, on 28/05/10), in June at Palamós harbour (5•104 cells/L on 11/06/10) and on June and December in Olímpic harbour (max. conc. 1,1•105 cells/L on 20/12/2010).
Bloom event dates (yyyy/mm/dd): Event Date:2010-03-26
Start: 2010-01-29, End: 2010-04-09
Quarantine levels dates (yyyy/mm/dd):
Additional date-related information: Anglès, S., Jordi, A., Garcés, E., Basterretxea, G., and Palanques, A. (2010). Alexandrium minutum resting cyst distribution dynamics in a confined site. Deep Sea Research Part II- Topical Studies in Oceanography 57, 210-221 Estrada, M., Solé, J., Anglès, S., and Garcés, E. (2010). The role of resting cysts in Alexandrium minutum population dynamics. Deep Sea Research Part II- Topical Studies in Oceanography 57, 308-321 Figueroa, R. I., E. Garcés and J.Camp (2010) Reproductive plasticity and local adaptation in the host-parasite system formed by the toxic Alexandrium minutum and the dinoflagellate parasite Parvilucifera sinerae. Harmful Algae 10, 56–63. Bravo I, Vila M, Masó M, Figueroa RI, Ramilo I (2008) Alexandrium catenella and Alexandrium minutum blooms in the Mediterranean Sea: Toward the identification of ecological niches. Harmful Algae 7:515-522 Garcés, E., M. Vila, A. Reñe, L. Alonso-Saez, S. Anglès, A. Lugliè, M. Masó, and J.M. Gasol. (2007) Natural bacterioplankton assemblage composition during blooms of Alexandrium spp. (Dinophyceae) in NW Mediterranean coastal waters. Aquatic Microbial Ecology, 46, 55-70. Van Lenning, K., M. Vila, M. Masó, E. Garcés, S. Anglès, N. Sampedro, A. Morales-Blake and J. Camp (2007) Short-term variations in development of a recurrent toxic Alexandrium minutum-dominated dinoflagellate bloom induced by meteorological conditions. Journal of Phycology, 43 (5), 892–907. Bravo, I., Garcés, E., Diogéne, J., Fraga, S., Sampedro, N. and Figueroa, R. I. (2006) The resting cysts of the toxigenic dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium in recent sediments from the Western Mediterranean coast. European Journal of Phycology 41(3): 293-302. Vila M., Giacobbe MG, Masó M, Gangemi E, Penna A, Sampedro N, Azzaro F, Camp J, Galluzzi L. (2005). A comparative study on recurrent blooms of Alexandrium minutum in two Mediterranean coastal areas. Harmful Algae, 4(4), 673-695. Vila M, Masó M. (2005). Phytoplankton functional groups and harmful algal species in anthropogenically impacted waters of the NW Mediterranean Sea. Scientia Marina, 69(1): 31-45. Garcés E, Bravo I, Vila M, Figueroa RI, Masó M, Sampedro N (2004). Relationship between vegetative cells and cyst production during Alexandrium minutum bloom in Arenys de Mar harbour (NW Mediterranean). J. Plankton. Res,26 (6), 637-645. Calbet, A., Vaqué, D., Felipe, J., Vila, M., Sala, MM., Alcaraz, M., Estrada, M. (2003). Relative grazing impact of microzooplankton and mesozooplankton on a bloom of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 259, 303-309. Vila, M., Camp, J., Garcés, E., Masó, M. and Delgado, M. (2001) High resolution spatio-temporal detection of HABs in confined waters of the NW Mediterranean. Journal of Plankton Research, 23(5): 497 – 514 Estrada, M., L. Arín, D. Blasco, A. Blauw, J. Camp, E. Garcés, N. Sampedro, M. Vila. 2008. A fuzzy logic model for Alexandrium minutum proliferations in harbours of the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean). Moestrup, O. et al. (eds) Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Harmful Algae. International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Comission of UNESCO, Copenhagen, pp. 111-113


Causative organism known: Yes
Causative Species/Genus: Alexandrium minutum (2206431 cells/L)
Co-Ocurring Species/Genus: Dinophysis sacculus (13840 cells/L)
Chlorophyll concentration, if known: µg/l
Additional bloom information: Other species: Prorocentrum micans, Pseudo-nitzschia spp.
Event-related bibliography:

Environmental Conditions

Weather: Turbidity (NTU): Wind direction:
Stratified water: Oxygen content (nL/L): Wind velocity:
Temperature (°C): 15.0 Oxygen saturation %: Current Direction:
Sechhi disk (m): Salinity: 37.3 Current Velocity:
Nutrient information:
Temperature Range During Event: Max: 15.1 °C, Min: 11 °C
Salinity Range During Event: Max: 37.8, Min: 35.1
Bloom location in the water column:
In situ
Growth Comments
Additional Environmental information:

Toxin Assay Information

Species containing the toxin Toxin type Toxin details Max. concentration Assay type
Kit used: Type of kit used:
Additional information:
Economic losses:
Management decision:
Additional harmful effect information: