General Information

Event name: NZ-94-001
Nature of the harmful event:
Seafood toxins
Event directly affected:
Natural Fish , Birds , Shellfish , Humans
Toxicity detected: Yes
Associated syndrome: OTHER
Unexplained toxicity:
Species implicated in toxin transmission (transvector):
Report the outcome of a monitoring programme: Yes (Biotoxin monitoring program)
Event occurred before in this location: No
Individuals to contact: RHODES Lesley

Location & Date

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Location: Latitude: -46.589167, Longitude: 168.062778
General location information: Foveaux Strait, South Island
HAB Area code(s): NZ-11
Additional location information: South-North progression of shellfish toxicity
Bloom event dates (yyyy/mm/dd): Start: 1994-01-14, End: 1994-05-13
Quarantine levels dates (yyyy/mm/dd):
Additional date-related information:


Causative organism known: Yes
Causative Species/Genus: Gymnodinium sp. (900 000 cells/L)
Karenia mikimotoi, Karenia brevis, Karenia selliformis
Co-Ocurring Species/Genus:
Chlorophyll concentration, if known: µg/l
Additional bloom information:
Event-related bibliography: Mackenzie, L., Haywood, A., Adamson, J., Truman, P., Till, D., Seki, T., ... & Yasumoto, T. (1996). Gymnodimine contamination of shellfish in New Zealand. Harmful and Toxic Algal Blooms., 97-100.

Environmental Conditions

Weather: Turbidity (NTU): Wind direction:
Stratified water: Oxygen content (nL/L): Wind velocity:
Temperature (°C): Oxygen saturation %: Current Direction:
Sechhi disk (m): Salinity: Current Velocity:
Nutrient information:
Temperature Range During Event: Max: °C, Min: °C
Salinity Range During Event:
Bloom location in the water column:
Growth Comments
Additional Environmental information:

Toxin Assay Information

Species containing the toxin Toxin type Toxin details Max. concentration Assay type
Tiostrea chilensis CYCLIC IMINES - Gymnodimines 650 MU 100g/L Bioassay-Mouse
Kit used: Type of kit used:
Additional information: The production of gymnodimine by cells was also confirmed by LC/MS analysis.
Economic losses: Affected commercially harvested clams (Austrovenus stuchburyii) and wild mussels and cultivated mussels
Management decision: A large area of the coast of the coast of the South Island was closed to shellfish harvesting.
Additional harmful effect information:
Created at 04:02 on 21 Feb 2018
Updated at 03:15 on 4 May 2018