General Information

Event name: ZAF-03-001
Nature of the harmful event:
Water Discoloration , High Phyto concentration
Event directly affected:
Toxicity detected: Yes
Associated syndrome: PSP
Unexplained toxicity:
Species implicated in toxin transmission (transvector):
Report the outcome of a monitoring programme: No
Event occurred before in this location: No
Individuals to contact: MANSFIELD, Lisa

Location & Date

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Location: Latitude: -33.913056, Longitude: 18.435556
General location information: Cape Town Harbour, South Africa
HAB Area code(s): ZAF-02
Additional location information:
Bloom event dates (yyyy/mm/dd): Start: 2003-11-14, End: 2004-02-13
Quarantine levels dates (yyyy/mm/dd):
Additional date-related information: Sampling initiated on 25 November 2003.


Causative organism known: Yes
Causative Species/Genus: Alexandrium minutum (1.4x10e8 cells/L)
reached during mid-December period
Co-Ocurring Species/Genus: Scrippsiella trochoidea (6.3x10e5 cells/L)
Chlorophyll concentration, if known: 243 µg/l
Additional bloom information: This was a first record of Alexandrium minutum in South African waters.
Event-related bibliography: PITCHER, G.C., CEMBELLA, A.D. JOYCE, L.B., LARSEN, J., PROBYN, T.A. and C. RUIZ SEBASTIAN 2007 The dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum in Cape Town harbour (South Africa): Bloom characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and toxin composition. Harmful Algae 6: 823-836.

Environmental Conditions

Weather: Turbidity (NTU): Wind direction:
Stratified water: Oxygen content (nL/L): Wind velocity:
Temperature (°C): 14.9 - 18.2 Oxygen saturation %: Current Direction:
Sechhi disk (m): Salinity: 34.1 - 37.6 Current Velocity:
Nutrient information: AMONIUM: 2.50-9.82 mmol N/m3
NITRATE: 6.77-18.39 mmol N/m3
Temperature Range During Event: Max: 18.2 °C, Min: 13.8 °C
Salinity Range During Event: Max: 37.6, Min: 34.1
Bloom location in the water column: Whole column
In situ
Growth Comments
Additional Environmental information:

Toxin Assay Information

Species containing the toxin Toxin type Toxin details Max. concentration Assay type
Alexandrium minutum Saxitoxins dcGTX1 1.5 fmol GTX/cell LC-FD
Kit used: Type of kit used:
Additional information: The composition of PSP toxins from Cape Town harbour was characterised by the presence of only gonyautoxins (GTX1-GTX4).
Economic losses:
Management decision:
Additional harmful effect information:
Created at 09:59 on 25 Apr 2018
Updated at 11:36 on 25 Apr 2018