General Information

Event name: ITA-80-001
Country: ITALY
Nature of the harmful event:
Water Discoloration , High Phyto concentration
Event directly affected:
Toxicity detected: No
Associated syndrome:
Unexplained toxicity:
Species implicated in toxin transmission (transvector):
Report the outcome of a monitoring programme: No
Event occurred before in this location: No
Individuals to contact: ZINGONE, Adriana

Location & Date

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Location: Latitude: 40.670000, Longitude: 14.740000
General location information: Vietri sul Mare (Salerno), Mediterranean Sea
HAB Area code(s): ITA-012
Additional location information: The area is close to the harbour of Salerno. There are beach and tourism activity in the zone
Bloom event dates (yyyy/mm/dd): Event Date:1980-08-15
Quarantine levels dates (yyyy/mm/dd):
Additional date-related information:


Causative organism known: Yes
Causative Species/Genus: Alexandrium balechii (Steidinger) Balech 1985 (5500000 cells/L)
Co-Ocurring Species/Genus:
Chlorophyll concentration, if known: µg/l
Additional bloom information: The bloom was concentrated in the first centimeters depth during the day. Intense bioluminiscence was evident at night. The bloom was spread over a quite wide area
Event-related bibliography: Montresor, M., Marino, D., Zingone, A. & Dafnis, G. 1990. Three Alexandrium species from coastal Tyrrhenian waters (Mediterranean Sea). In: GranÚli, E., Sundstrom, B., Edler, L. & Anderson, D. M. [Eds.] Toxic marine phytoplankton. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 82-87.

Environmental Conditions

Weather: Turbidity (NTU): Wind direction:
Stratified water: Oxygen content (nL/L): Wind velocity:
Temperature (°C): Oxygen saturation %: Current Direction:
Sechhi disk (m): Salinity: Current Velocity:
Nutrient information:
Temperature Range During Event: Max: °C, Min: °C
Salinity Range During Event:
Bloom location in the water column: Whole column
Growth Comments
Additional Environmental information:

Toxin Assay Information

Species containing the toxin Toxin type Toxin details Max. concentration Assay type
Kit used: Type of kit used:
Additional information:
Economic losses: Probably yes, in relation with people non going to the beach
Management decision:
Additional harmful effect information: Blooms of this species were coincident with mass mortalities of fish in the type locality (Gulf of Mexico) in 1969-1970, probably due to oxigen depletion, but no harmful effects were reported for blooms of A. balechii in the Tyrrhenian Sea
Created at 06:27 on 10 Sep 2018
Updated at 02:59 on 25 Jun 2019