General Information

Event name: ZAF-11-001
Nature of the harmful event:
Mass mortalities
Event directly affected:
Natural Fish
Toxicity detected: No
Associated syndrome:
Unexplained toxicity: No
Species implicated in toxin transmission (transvector):
Report the outcome of a monitoring programme: No
Event occurred before in this location: Yes (This is the 5th recorded bloom of this species)
Individuals to contact: MANSFIELD, Lisa

Location & Date

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Location: Latitude: -34.358333, Longitude: 18.665556
General location information: Cape Peninsula, South Coast, South Africa
HAB Area code(s): ZAF-02
Additional location information: predominantly on the western side of the Cape Peninsula.
Bloom event dates (yyyy/mm/dd): Event Date:2011-11-07
Start: 2011-11-04, End: 2012-02-01
Quarantine levels dates (yyyy/mm/dd):
Additional date-related information:


Causative organism known: Yes
Causative Species/Genus: Gonyaulax polygramma (>220000 cells/L)
Co-Ocurring Species/Genus:
Chlorophyll concentration, if known: µg/l
Additional bloom information:
Event-related bibliography: VAN DER LINGEN, C.D., HUTCHINGS L., LAMONT, T. and G.C. PITCHER 2016 Climate change, dinoflagellate blooms and sardine in the southern Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem. Environmental Development, 17: 230-243.

Environmental Conditions

Weather: Turbidity (NTU): Wind direction:
Stratified water: Oxygen content (nL/L): Wind velocity:
Temperature (°C): Oxygen saturation %: Current Direction:
Sechhi disk (m): Salinity: Current Velocity:
Nutrient information:
Temperature Range During Event: Max: °C, Min: °C
Salinity Range During Event:
Bloom location in the water column:
Growth Comments
Additional Environmental information:

Toxin Assay Information

Species containing the toxin Toxin type Toxin details Max. concentration Assay type
Kit used: Type of kit used:
Additional information:
Economic losses: Sardine (Sardinops sagax) is the main target of the South African purse-seine fishery and is also ecologically important as it is the dominant prey of many species of piscivorous fish, marine mammals and seabirds.
Management decision:
Additional harmful effect information:
Created at 01:04 on 24 Aug 2020